1 Августа 2018

Spark-plasma sintering of powder compositions

Опубликовал С. Петриченко

Brief information on the development and scope of its application

Spark-plasma sintering (IPS) is a promising method of consolidating powder materials that ensures the preservation of the ultra-dispersed grain structure and allows achieving high quality grain bonding along the boundaries leading to the possibility of obtaining high-density powder compositions with increased physical-mechanical properties.  IPA makes it possible to purposefully control the growth rate of grains and thus - forms nanostructured, microheterogeneous, multifunctional compositions of materials with high physico-mechanical and operational properties.

IPS «Hephaestus» complex
Microstructure of sintered samples (initial components of Fe-Ti-C- (B))

Progressive development in the world

Using the consolidation method of the IPS provides a heating rate in the range from 10 ºС / c to 30 ºС / c and allows to obtain high-density composite materials (almost up to 100%) with high uniformity with strong bonds between the particles. 

Consolidation of powders by passing a superposition of DC and AC has the following advantages:

  • a uniform temperature distribution in the sample;
  • porosity at the level of 95 - 98%;
  • uniform sintering of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials;
  • the time of the process does not exceed 300 s.
  • the mechanical pressure does not exceed 60 MPa.

Samples of materials obtained by the IPS method at the Hephaestus-10 facility have the following characteristics:

  • carbide steel of the iron-carbon alloy-titanium carbide (diboride) system, hardness 68 HRC, tensile strength σ = 1350 MPa, porosity 0.8%;
  • carbide steel of the system iron-carbon alloy - titanium carbide hardness 45 HRC, tensile strength σ = 650 MPa, porosity 1.2%.

    Principal advantages of the development

    The experimental complex for spark-curing sintering "Hephaestus-10" is based on the direct transmission through the powder composition of the output current with high amplitude values ​​(superposition of constant and alternating current of increased frequency).  The direct current heats the entire cross section of the briquette evenly, but peripheral sections are cooled by the heat sink.  The alternating current, due to the skin effect, is partially displaced to the surface of the sample section and conducts primarily the heating of the peripheral part.  This compensates for the effect of the heat sink, equalizes the temperature conditions across the section. 

    On the contact areas between adjacent particles under the influence of current, intensive mass transfer occurs in the solid phase.  Part of the material can melt and evaporate, which is accompanied by an even more intense mass transfer.  As a result of this, a rapid sintering process takes place in one-component powder compacts.

    The history of research and development, received awards

    Studies in the field of consolidation of composite materials by spark-plasma sintering are conducted at the Institute from 2009 to the present.  In 2013, the diploma of the winner of the all-Ukrainian competition "Wine-2012" was awarded in the category "Krashchniy Vinakhid - 2012 in the Mykolaiv region".

    The physicotechnological foundations for the production of highly wear-resistant (dispersion-reinforced) metal matrix composites based on aluminum, titanium and iron alloys using high-voltage electric discharge processing and spark-plasma sintering have been developed. 

    Nowadays, physical and technological bases for the production of highly wear-resistant metal matrix composites based on aluminum, titanium, iron and their mixtures with the addition of B4C are being developed.

    Related literature and patents:

    1. Yurlova MS, Olevsky EA, Grigoriev EG, Sizonenko ON Production of high-strength composite materials by plasma spark sintering of powders Fe + Ti + B4C synthesized by the methods of electropulse treatment // Vector of Science of Togliatti State University. un-ta.  - 2013. - No. 3 (25).  - С. 297 - 300.
    2. Sizonenko ON, Grigoriev EG, Zaichenko AD, Prishash NS, Torpakov AS, Yurlova M.S. Intrinsically-plasma sintering of powder metal matrix composites // International Conference "Powder Metallurgy: Current status and future" Abstracts dokladov.- Kiev, 22 - April 25, 2013, S. 43.
    3. Sizonenko ON, Grigoriev EG, Prystash N., Zaichenko AD , Lipyan EV , Torpakov A.S., Tregub V.A.  High-voltage electric discharge in liquid as a method of preparation of blend for carbide steels // International virtual journal for science, technics and innovations for the industry.  ISSN 1313 - 1226, Year VII Issue 10/2013 - P.19 - 22.
    4. O.N. Sizonenko, G.A. Baglyuk, E.I.  Taftai, A.D.  Zaichenko, N.S.  Prystash, E.V.  Lipyan, A.A.  Zhdanov, A.S.  Torpakov Dispersion and Carburization of Titanium Powders by Electric Discharge // Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics: Volume 52, Issue 5 (2013), Page 247-253.
    5. Sizonenko ON, Litvinov VV, Konotop SV, Kovalenko AA Automation of the process of measuring temperature, current and voltage during spark-sintering of disperse compositions // Vestnik of the National Technical University "KhPI". Collection of scientific papers.  Special Issue №21 (1064) "Engineering and Electrophysics high voltages" - Kharkov, 2014, p.130 - 140.
    6. Sizonenko O., Zaichenko A., Prystash N., A. Torpakov Rlasma technologies for obtainment of composite materials dispersion hardened by nanostructured particles // International virtual journal for science, technics and in-novations for the industry. ISSN 1313 - 0226, Year IX Issue 1/2015 - P.32 - 35.
    7. Pristash NS, Sizonenko ON, Kovalenko AA Influence of the heating rate in the process of spark-plasma sintering on the kinetics of compaction and the structure formation of iron powder // Mizhvuzivskii zbirnik "Naukovi Notatki".   - 2016. - No. 53. - P. 126 - 129.
    8. Pristash NS, Sizonenko ON, Zaychenko А.D. Influence of the heating rate during spark-plasma sintering on the kinetics of compaction, structure formation and properties of materials of the Fe-Ti-C-system (B) // News of the Ukrainian Material Association, 2016.

    13 patents have been received, for example:

    1. Patent No. 97908 Ukraine. Пристрій електроживлення установки для спікання порошкових матеріалів електричним струмом / V. Litvinov; Sizonenko;  O. Raichenko;  S. Konotop;  O. Khvoshchan. 
    2. Patent number 101575 Ukraine. Пристрій for іскроплазмового спікання порошків / O. Sizonenko; Івлієв;  O. Raichenko;  V. Litvinov;  A. Zaichenko;  S. Konotop

      Искро-плазменное спекание порошковых композиций